A new research conducted on mice has shown that immune-positron emission tomography was able to detect inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) accurately in murine model. Particular details about the mediators of inflammation could also be revealed with the help of this imaging technique.
IBD is a chronic illness which affected nearly 3million US adults in the year 2015. It is found that some people have a greater chance of developing this condition. Being above the age of 45 years, belonging to a particular sociodemographic groups and being born in US are all some of the risk factors of developing IBD. Endoscopy is currently used for the diagnosis of IBD. But this procedure does not provide information as to what is the cause behind the inflammation and is also an invasive technique. The new research has found that immuno44-positron emission tomography (immuno-PET) can be an effective means of diagnosis of IBD.
The new study has been published in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. The author of the study is Patrick. A. Hughes, who is the Gastrointestinal Neuroimmune Interactions Research Group’s head at University of Adelaide, Australia. Hughes explained that endoscopy is not efficient in providing real-time information about certain drug targets and specific mediators and also it is invasive. He said that it was necessary to have less invasive techniques which could provide fast diagnostic information about IBD. This becomes all the more important when the inflammation area are not easily accessible by using endoscopy like difficult-to-access portions of small intestines and also in people who are at an increased risk of endoscopy which includes people with hemophilia and children.
In order to study the Immuno-PET’s potential in the diagnosis of IBD, a mouse model was used by Hughes and his colleagues. They found a link between the inflammation caused by IBD and activation of innate immune network. A cell receptor called CD11b is present in innate immune cells which create an immune response and which secrete interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ẞ). It was found in an analysis by the researchers that levels of CD11b and IL-1ẞ, measured using immuno-PET was increased in the mice’s gastrointestinal tract with colitis but was not the case in healthy mice. It was also found that there was a correlation between the severity of condition and IL-1ẞ but not with CD11b.